27Mhz (AM) CB frequency table
Australia has two main types of CB or Citizen Band radio. This articles lists the channels and frequencies used by the AM or 27MHz type. This is the cheapest type of CB available and used for long distance communications.
|9||27.065||Emergency Calling only|
|11||27.085||General Call (IE contact then find another channel)|
|16||27.155||General call for Side Band (LSB)|
Morse code and Phonetic Alphabet
Not much use in day to day life, but some people are curious. The Phonetic alphabet does have a real use when using a two way radio and the signal is not very clear. In an emergency just one number or letter out may make a big difference, so this is worth knowing.
|Letters||Morse||Phonetic||How to pronounce|
|A||· –||Alpha||AL FAH|
|B||– · · ·||Bravo||BRAH VOE|
|C||– · – ·||Charlie||CHAR LEE|
|D||– · ·||Delta||DELL TAH|
|F||· · – ·||Foxtrot||FOKS TROT|
|G||– – ·||Golf||GOLF|
|H||· · · ·||Hotel||HO TELL|
|I||· ·||India||IN DEE AH|
|J||· – – –||Juliet||JEW LEE ETT|
|K||– · –||Kilo||KEY LOH|
|L||· – · ·||Lima||LEE MAH|
|N||– ·||November||NO VEM BER|
|O||– – –||Oscar||OSS CAH|
|P||· – – ·||Papa||PAH PAH|
|Q||– – · –||Quebec||KEH BECK|
|R||· – ·||Romeo||ROW ME OH|
|S||· · ·||Sierra||SEE AIR RAH|
|U||· · –||Uniform||YOU NEE FORM|
|V||· · · –||Victor||VIK TAH|
|W||· – –||Whiskey||WISS KEY|
|X||– · · –||X-ray||ECKS RAY|
|Y||– · – –||Yankee||YANG KEY|
|Z||– – · ·||Zulu||ZOO LOO|
|0||– – – – –||Zero||ZE RO|
|1||· – – – –||One||WUN|
|2||· · – – –||Two||TOO|
|3||· · · – –||Three||TREE|
|4||· · · · –||Four||FOWER|
|5||· · · · ·||Five||FIFE|
|6||– · · · ·||Six||SIX|
|7||– – · · ·||Seven||SEV EN|
|8||– – – · ·||Eight||AIT|
|9||– – – – ·||Nine||NIN ER|
|Period||· – · – · –|
|Comma||– – · · – –|
470Mhz (FM) CB frequency table
This article lists the channel, use and frequency table for the 470 MHz FM CB radio for Australia. These radios are becoming very common in the outdoors. Cheap handed held radios that operate over 1-2km are available for less than $100 at many electronic shops. These types of CB radios give access to a large network of freely accessible repeaters throughout Australia. The use of these repeaters can extend the range of communications up 50km. Includes links to lists of all UHF CB repeaters in Australia
UHF CB repeaters NSW
UHF CB repeaters VIC
UHF CB repeaters TAS
UHF CB repeaters SA
UHF CB repeaters WA
UHF CB repeaters QLD
UHF CB repeaters ACT
UHF CB repeaters NT
|1||476.425||Repeater access (In Duplex mode)|
|2||476.450||Repeater access (In Duplex mode)|
|3||476.475||Repeater access (In Duplex mode)|
|4||476.500||Repeater access (In Duplex mode)|
|5||476.525||Emergency Call channel (simplex or duplex)|
|6||476.550||Repeater access (In Duplex mode)|
|7||476.575||Repeater access (In Duplex mode)|
|8||476.600||Repeater access (In Duplex mode)|
|22||476.950||Telemetry and Remote control (ie no talking)|
|23||476.975||Telemetry and Remote control (ie no talking)|
|31||477.175||(Outgoing channel for duplex repeater access)|
|32||477.200||(Outgoing channel for duplex repeater access)|
|33||477.225||(Outgoing channel for duplex repeater access)|
|34||477.250||(Outgoing channel for duplex repeater access)|
|35||477.275||(Outgoing channel for duplex repeater access -Emergency)|
|36||477.300||(Outgoing channel for duplex repeater access)|
|37||477.325||(Outgoing channel for duplex repeater access)|
|38||477.350||(Outgoing channel for duplex repeater access)|
Beaufort Scale (for wind speed)
The Beaufort scale is a standard scale to communicate wind force. The scale starts at traditionally ranges from 0 to 12, with zero been no wind and 12 been a hurricane force wind of over 120km/h. The scale has since grown to 17, to describe more severe hurricane winds. For the sake of this article I have just included the 0-12. The scale include descriptions of the what to expect to see from such a force. Rear-Admiral, Sir Francis Beaufort, was born in Ireland in 1774. He entered the Royal Navy at the age of 13 and was a midshipman aboard the Aquilon. By 1800 he had risen to the rank of Commander. In the summer of 1805 Beaufort was appointed to the command of the Woolwich, a 44 gun man-of-war.
In 1806 he wrote in his log book a wind force scale. The scale was simple and very similar to one that Alexander Dalrymple had written in a book in 1789. A year later he added some criteria to the 0-12 scale that indicated how much of a ship’s sails would be employed by a British man-of-war under each condition. It was not relate to the speed of the wind.
Over the following years he continued to use his scale in his logs. It was finally adopted in December 1838 by the British Admiralty for use in all Royal Navy logbooks. However, as ship design and the introduction of steam power became widespread even that scale had to be modified.
In 1912 the International Commission for Weather Telegraphy sought some agreement on velocity equivalents for the Beaufort scale. A uniform set of equivalents was accepted in 1926 and revised slightly in 1946, extending the scale to 17 values (the added five values further refining the hurricane-force winds). By 1955, wind velocities in knots replaced Beaufort numbers on weather maps.
Today’s Beaufort Scale including the observed land conditions…
|Beaufort||Wind speed||Description||Land conditions|
|0||0||0||Calm||Calm. Smoke rises vertically.|
|1||1-3||1-6||Light air||Wind motion visible in smoke.|
|2||4-6||7-11||Light breeze||Wind felt on exposed skin. Leaves rustle.|
|3||1-10||12-19||Gentle breeze||Leaves and smaller twigs in constant motion.|
|4||11-15||20-29||Moderate breeze||Dust and loose paper raised. Small branches begin to move.|
|5||16-21||30-39||Fresh breeze||Smaller trees sway.|
|6||22-27||40-50||Strong breeze||Large branches in motion. Whistling heard in overhead wires. Umbrella use becomes difficult.|
|7||28-33||51-62||Near gale||Whole trees in motion. Effort needed to walk against the wind.|
|8||34-40||63-75||Gale||Twigs broken from trees. Cars veer on road.|
|9||41-47||76-87||Strong gale||Light structure damage.|
|10||48-55||88-102||Storm||Trees uprooted. Considerable structural damage.|
|11||56-63||103-119||Violent storm||Widespread structural damage.|
|12||64-80||>120||Hurricane||Considerable and widespread damage to structures.|
There are 4 basic directional indicators used; North South East and West. I assume this is not news to you. A compass uses the same principles and breaks directions down even further to allow more accurate descriptions. When needing to be very accurate you will talk in degrees when general is ok then you will talk in cardinal directions (eg when describing wind direction or the general direction of a track.)
Below you will find two diagrams and a table.
The cardinal points diagram shows a basic compass bevel and the cardinal points
The compass bevel diagram show the mix of cardinal points and degrees that are common on a compass
The Bearing and cardinal points table relates the angle in degrees to a cardinal point and the text descriptor.
- Cardinal Points
- Compass Bevel
- Bearing and Cardinal points table
|Degrees||Cardinal Point||Spoken (lazy)|
|11.25||N by E||North by east|
|22.50||NNE||North north east (Nor nor east)|
|33.75||NE by N||North east by north|
|45.00||NE||North east (nor east)|
|56.25||NE by E||North east by east|
|67.50||ENE||East north east|
|78.75||E by N||East by north|
|101.25||E by S||East by south|
|112.50||ESE||East south east|
|123.75||SE by E||South east by east|
|146.25||SE by S||South east by south|
|157.50||SSE||South south east (sou sou east)|
|168.75||S by E||South by east|
|191.25||S by W||South by west|
|202.50||SSW||South south west (sou sou west)|
|213.75||SW by S||South west by south|
|236.25||SW by W||South west by west|
|247.50||WSW||West south west|
|258.75||W by S||West by south|
|281.25||W by N||West by north|
|292.50||WNW||West north west|
|303.75||NW by W||North west by west|
|315.00||NW||North west (nor west)|
|326.25||NW by N||North west by north|
|337.50||NNW||North north west (nor nor west)|
|348.75||N by W||North by west|
Track Classification System
An Australian standard for bush track was developed in 2001 in consultation with a number of out door bodies and organisations. These Standards are used to describe the condition of the track and the terrain and give a feel for the level of experience required by people using them.
The following tables gives a bit of a feel for the tack classification standards. I have modified them a bit from the AS 2156.1-2001 to suit the need of the website. As well as these elements for classifying a track the standard does also outline guides for management, these include facilities to provide, publicity and intervention levels.
The pictures in this table act a a bit of a guide, but only refer to the specific element been studied (IE just the sign or gradient)
A walk is then classified based on the higest class number found.
In this table below you will see the range of assessments made for a particular track ranged the full gamut but generally sat around class 3. But because the one element of weather ranged from 1 to 4 then this walk will be ranked a 4. However if in the summer months the weather class never extends beyond 3, then you could class this was as a 3 in summer and 4 in other seasons.
Please see the AS 2156.1-2001 standard for more information.
Camping stoves compared
Fuel stoves have become and essential piece of equipment for your pack on any over night expedition. The stoves generally safer and much lower impact on the environment than the traditional campfire. The debate rages as to which is the best kind of stove on the market. The answer is easy – mine! But since you don’t believe me, I have put together a chart that compares different aspects of different stoves so that you can pick one for you.
Now these figures are pretty general and will vary greatly depending on a bunch of things like model of stove, fuel quality, weather conditions. But it should give you a feel for the main differences
Follow this link for test done by real people on real stoves
The stove types compared are
Wood Gas (or gypsy stove)
Compress kerosene (Esbit or Hexamine)
Compressed gas (LPG or Butane)
Methylated spirits (pepsi can or Trangia
Multi-fuels (separate fuel tank) (MSR)
Multi-fuels (built in fuel tank) (Colman)
The elements compared are;
Standard Fuel container
Running Cost / per hr
Time to boil 1L of water (mins)
Energy Output (BTU’s)
Ease of lighting
Availability of Fuel Supply
Ease to refill
Ease to judge fuel remaining
Use in Fuel stove only areas
Use in Snow
Topographical Map Legend
A topographical map can just look like a bunch of squiggly lines at first, but once you get used to the key or legend it becomes a simple way to find out an enormous amount of information. This article has the key for the main components of the new NSW topographical map series.
Naismith’s rule was developed by a William Naismith in 1892 as a basic rule of thumb that can be used to calculate the time it will take to walk from point a to b. The formula has been adapted a little since then and considers the distance to walk, the altitude changed and the speed that you will walk at.
This rule assumes a reasonable level of fitness, but Tranter’s corrections can but used to change the time to suit a particular level of fitness.
Naismith’s Rule first makes a calculation based on distance over time. eg if your walking a 4km/h for 4 km it will take you one hour. Not rocket science. But it adds a bit over an hour and a half for every 1000m you climb and about three quarters of a hour for every 500 meters you descend.
I have include two methods to help you in your trip planning. Firstly a calculator and secondly a Nomogram that you can use with a ruler in the field. Have a play with both
- Naismith’s Rule Calculator
- Naismith’s Rule Nomogram
- How to use Naismith’s Rule Nomogram
This Nomogram below can be used to calculate the estimated walking time.
At first this Nomogram can be a bit overwhelming to look at. But don’t stress I think you will pick it up quickly.
First you need to pick an altitude shift line.
Move from right to left to find the line that represents the number of meters you will climb in total, next
Move down the number of meters you will descend in total.
Follow this new line up and to the left (this is your altitude shift line)
see here we plan to climb 700m and descend 1000m
Next we keep going up the altitude shift line until we get to your estimated walking speed.
This is our pivot point.
In this example it is 4km/h
Now just draw a straight line from the number of Kilometers you plan to walk, through the pivot point till you hit the Hours axis. And voila you can read the estimated time.
In this example we will walk 10km and the answer is 4 and a half hours
If you wish to apply Tranter’s Corrections I have include a table below to help.
Fitness in the left column is the number of minutes that it would take you to climb 1000ft over 800m
|Time taken in hours using Naismith’s Rule|
You have heard it said that “It’s not the heat, it’s the humidity” Well, actually it’s both. Our bodies dissipate heat by varying the rate and depth of blood circulation, by losing water through the skin and sweat glands, and, as the last extremity is reached, by panting. As the body heats up, the heart begins to pump more blood, blood vessels to accommodate the increased flow, and the tiny capillaries in the upper layers of skin are put into operation.
The body’s blood is circulated closer to the skin’s surface, and excess heat drains off into the cooler atmosphere by one or a combination of three ways…
- convection, and
At lower temperatures, radiation and convection are efficient methods of removing heat. However, once the air temperature reaches 35°C, heat loss by radiation and convection ceases. It is at this point that heat loss by sweating becomes all-important. But sweating, by itself, does nothing to cool the body, unless the water is removed by evaporation (sweat changing to water vapor). The downside of this method of cooling is that high relative humidity retards evaporation.
Relative humidity is a measure of the amount of water vapor contained in the air, divided by the maximum amount the air can hold, expressed as a percent. A relative humidity of 50% means the air contains ½ of the water vapor it can actually hold. The maximum amount of water vapor the air can hold is dependent upon the temperature (the “relative” in relative humidity). The higher the temperature, the more water (actually water vapor) the air can hold. For example, air with a temperature of 0°C can hold about 4.5ml of water. Air with a temperature of 26°C can hold about an 30ml of water.
So, what does this all mean? Sweat is evaporated (changes from a liquid to a gas, i.e. water vapor) when heat is added. The heat is supplied by your body. The results are summed up in the table below…
Capacity for air
to hold water
from the body
We, at the National Weather Service, as part of our mission for protecting life and property, have a measure of how the hot weather “feels” to the body. The Heat Index is based on work by R.G. Steadman and published in 1979 under the title “The Assessment of Sultriness, Parts 1 and 2.” In this work, Steadman constructed a table which uses relative humidity and dry bulb temperature to produce the “apparent temperature” or the temperature the body “feels”.
We use this table to provide you with Heat Index values. These values are for shady locations only. Exposure to full sunshine can increase heat index values by up to 10°C. Also, strong winds, particularly with very hot, dry air, can be extremely hazardous as the wind adds heat to the body. The Heat Index Table is below.
|Relative Humidity %|
Remember, these values are in the SHADE. You can add up to 10°C to these values if you are in direct sunlight.
The chart below tells you the risk to the body from continued exposure to the excessive heat.
Heat Index/Apparent Temp (°C)
General Affect on People in High Risk Groups
54°C or Higher
Heat/Sunstroke HIGHLY LIKELY with continued exposure
40°C – 54°C
Sunstroke, heat cramps, or heat exhaustion LIKELY, and heatstroke POSSIBLE with prolonged exposure and/or physical activity
32°C – 40°C
Sunstroke, heat cramps, or heat exhaustion POSSIBLE with prolonged exposure and/or physical activity
26°C – 32°C
Fatigue POSSIBLE with prolonged exposure and/or physical activity